The Charley Schultz Resident Scholar Award program is sponsored by DENTSPLY GAC and was established by the American Association of Orthodontists (AAO) in 2004. This award offers an opportunity to graduate students/residents to present clinical science and basic science research using narrative material and a poster board. The award program was held at the 2016 American Association of Orthodontists Annual Session in Orlando, FL on April 30, 2016. This year’s recipients are:
Basic Science Research
1st Place: Anthrax Receptor 1 and Its Role in Craniofacial Growth and Development
Negin Katebi – Harvard School of Dental Medicine
The main manifestations of GAPO syndrome include growth retardation (G), alopepecia (A), psuedoanodontia (P), and in some cases, progressive optic atrophy (O). It is shown that loss of function mutations in Anthrax toxin receptor 1 is causative of GAPO syndrome. Antxr1 KO mice were used in order to study the role of ANTXR1 in bone tissue hemostasis. Growth retardation, a bone phenotype in GAPO patients, and impaired endochondral bone formation were observed in mutant mice. In addition, the mutants demonstrated a defect in synchondroses. The micro-CT and immunohistochemistry analyses revealed that mutant mice had higher and wider skull and shorter cranial base length, a premature perichondrial ossification and a reduction in the width of both spheno-occipital and pre-sphenoid synchondroses. The data suggest that ANTXR1 is a (1) negative regulator of VEGF and that (2) impaired VEGF signaling may, in part, result in accelerated chondrocytes hypertrophy and premature synchondrosis fusion.
2nd Place: Osseous Boundaries of the Regional Acceleratory Phenomenon with Micro-osteoperforations (MOPs)
Lauren Van Gemert – Texas A&M University Baylor College of Dentistry
Purpose: To qualify and quantify the extent of damage produced by micro-osteoperforations (MOPs).
Methods: Using a split mouth design, 34 MOPs (PROPEL) were randomly placed in the furcal bone of 13 beagle dogs. μCT, Vickers hardness microindentation, histologic and histomorphometric analyses were performed.
Results: Microfractures extended up to approximately 0.8 mm. Experimental bone density was significantly less up to 4.2 mm. Density differences were small (<5%) 1.5 mm or more from the MOP. Vickers hardness of the experimental bone was significantly less up to 0.75 mm. TRAP staining showed increased activity up to 2.5 mm from the MOP at 2-weeks, not after 4-weeks. Vital fluorescence staining showed diffuse bone deposition up to 1.5 mm from the MOP. H&E sections showed initial healing and a zone of acellular bone extending approximately 0.5 mm.
Conclusions: While the biologic effects of MOP placement extend further, the clinically significant effects are limited to approximately 1.5 mm.
3rd Place: A Nano-scaffold with BMP2 Genetically Engineered Stem Cells Promotes Vascularized Bone Formation
Huiyan Guan – State University of New York, Buffalo
Background: There is an urgent need for bone reconstructions because the bone defects are increasing medical problems.
Purpose: To overcome the clinical disadvantages of conventional bone grafts for patients with craniofacial bone defects including cleft palate.
Research Design: Sandwich-like 3D scaffold combined with nCS+M/B2 (injectable nano calcium sulfate to support the delivery and growth of BMP2 genetically engineered stem cells) to promote vascularized bone regeneration, and coated with VEGF- or/and FGF9- conjugated fibrin to increase the stability meanwhile slowing down the release. Implanted into mice subcutaneously to test the osteogenic and angiogenic activity.
Results: MicroCT, alkaline phosphatase activity assay and histological analysis demonstrated high bone formation while immunostaining indicated newly formed vascular.
1st Place: Orthodontic Tooth Movement with Aligners Using the AcceleDent® Aura Device in Adults
Melissa Alfonso – University of Florida
The AcceleDent® Aura device was devised to accelerate orthodontic tooth movement (OTM) based on the premise that vibration can accelerate wound healing via angiogenesis and increase bone remodeling rates.
Objectives: To investigate the effect of AcceleDent® Aura on OTM in an OTM model with aligners.
Methods: Prospective, single-center, randomized controlled crossover study. One mx central incisor was moved 1.98mm using Zendura® aligners. Subjects were randomly assigned to active or sham device and switched devices halfway through the study.
Results: 16M, 23F completed the protocol. A mean of 0.81mm (SD= 0.23) actual OTM occurred with the active device, and 0.90mm (SD= 0.22) with the sham device (p=NS). Race, sex, and age were not correlated with OTM while using the active device. No significant difference in subject pain was found between devices.
Conclusions: The AcceleDent® Aura device was not found to accelerate the rate of OTM or alter pain perception using this OTM model.
2nd Place: The Effect of Low-Level Laser Therapy on Orthodontic Root Resorption and Pain
Doreen Ng – University of Sydney
Background: Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) has been shown to accelerate orthodontic tooth movement by 30%, however the effect of LLLT on root resorption has not been extensively studied.
Purpose: To investigate the effect of LLLT on orthodontically induced root-resorption and orthodontic pain.
Methods: 20 patients requiring extraction of maxillary first premolars were selected for this split-mouth study. 150g of buccal tipping force was applied bilaterally to the maxillary first premolars for 28 days. Each patient’s right and left premolars were randomly assigned a “laser” and “sham-laser” side. The experimental side received 808nm laser therapy on days 1, 2, 3, 4, 7, 14 and 21. Premolars were extracted on day 28 and were imaged using Micro-CT for root resorption analyses. Pain was assessed with visual analog scales.
Results and Conclusion: LLLT reduced root resorption by 23% (p=0.026). LLLT tended to reduce orthodontic pain compared to the sham-laser.
3rd Place: Managing Orthodontic Bracket Induced Plaque Formation and Associated Oral Diseases
Tingxi Wu – University of California, Los Angeles
Orthodontic brackets alter tooth surface topology, cause heavy accumulation of plaque, leading to major orthodontic problems such as white spot lesion, gingival inflammation. The working hypothesis is that “polysaccharides and polypeptides on bacterial surfaces play major role in microbial adherence and biofilm formation during bracket-induced plaque formation, which could be potentially inhibited by specific sugar or amino acid monomers”. The aim is to discover sugars /amino acids, formulate them and evaluate the safety and anti-plaque efficacy of the formula in vitro and in vivo. A panel of sugar/amino acids with inhibitory effects against in vitro biofilm formation has been found and formulated. The formula showed strong inhibitory effects against bracket-induced biofilm formation in vitro. A clinical study of the efficacy of this formula is now under evaluation in vivo. This finding would have positive impacts on reducing gingivitis and white spot lesions in orthodontic patients.
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